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Bible

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The Bible is the sacred text of Christianity. It is comprised of two sections: the Old Testament and the New Testament. The Old Testament, written in Hebrew, is the sacred text of Judaism (which places the books in a different order and calls it the Tanakh). The New Testament, written in Koine Greek, is unique to Christianity. The word 'testament" is roughly equal to "covenant," which is roughly equal to "agreement" or "deal." Thus the Old Testament follows the old covenant, or deal, made between God and the people of Israel, while the New Testament follows the new deal made between God and the Christians via Jesus. The Bible isn't a book but is a collection of books. Any attempt to read it cover to cover usually proves aggravating, as many Bible books repeat what others have already described, and usually not in chronological order.The Old Testament reached its final form around 150 B.C., the New around A.D. 200.

Each book in the Bible is divided into chapters and each chapter is divided into verses, though these divisions often don't divide thoughts or even sentences very cleanly. They are useful, however, for locating specific points in the Bible.

Many people are under the impression that the thees, thous, and thines often associated with Bible scriptures reflect the nobility of their message. Actually, they reflect the usage of Elizabethan English, the language in which the King James Version of the Bible -- the only English version for almost three hundred years -- was composed. Thee, thou, thy, and thine were used to imply the word you in the singular only (ye, you, your, and yours were you in the plural). Many modern translations omit thee, etc. as it is viewed as archaic.


Contents

Which Bible?

Old as it may seem, before you can even begin to discuss the Bible, you have to ask "Which Bible are we talking about?"

To the Jews, it's the Old Testament.

To most Protestants, it's the Old and New Testament.

To the Lutherans, Anglicans, Episcopalians, Roman Catholics and the Eastern Orthodox, it's the Old and New Testament and the Apocrypha.

Which Translation?

Another problem in Bible analysis (one never mentioned by Bible literalists) is that no two Bibles are exactly alike; each translation reflects the politics and religious doctrine of its sponsor.


Bible components

The Old Testament

Jews divide the Old Testament into the Law (Torah), the Prophets (Nevi'im), and the Writings (Ketuvim). Collectively, they are called the "Tanakh".

The Hebrew Scriptures

  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles
  • Ezra
  • Nehemiah
  • Esther
  • Job
  • Psalms
  • Proverbs
  • Ecclesiastes
  • Song of Solomon
  • Isaiah
  • Jeremiah
  • Lamentations
  • Ezekiel
  • Daniel
  • Hosea
  • Joel
  • Amos
  • Obadiah
  • Jonah
  • Micah
  • Nahum
  • Habakkuk
  • Zephaniah
  • Haggai
  • Zechariah
  • Malachi

The Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books

The Apocrypha (or Deuterocanon to Catholics) are works which first appeared in the Septuagint (a Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures). The first Christians used the Septuagint for the Old Testament as many were Gentiles and unable to read Hebrew (Greek was the lingua-franca of the eastern part of the Roman Empire). Of the following works, the Roman Catholic Church does not include I Esdras, II Esdras, III Maccabees, IV Maccabees, Psalm 151, nor the Prayer of Manasses. Other books will vary among various Orthodox Churches

  • Tobit
  • Judith
  • Additions to the Book of Esther
  • Wisdom of Solomon
  • Ecclesiasticus, or the Wisdom of Jesus Son of Sirach
  • Baruch
  • The Letter of Jeremiah
  • The Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Jews
  • Susanna
  • Bel and the Dragon
  • 1 Maccabees
  • 2 Maccabees
  • 1 Esdras
  • Prayer of Manasseh
  • Psalm 151
  • 3 Maccabees
  • 2 Esdras
  • 4 Maccabees

The New Testament

  • Matthew
  • Mark
  • Luke
  • John
  • Acts of the Apostles
  • Romans
  • 1 Corinthians
  • 2 Corinthians
  • Galatians
  • Ephesians
  • Philippians
  • Colossians
  • 1 Thessalonians
  • 2 Thessalonians
  • 1 Timothy
  • 2 Timothy
  • Titus
  • Philemon
  • Hebrews
  • James
  • 1 Peter
  • 2 Peter
  • 1 John
  • 2 John
  • 3 John
  • Jude
  • Revelation

See Also


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